Layer 2 Switching

Layer 2 Switching

Before the concept of Switching, Ethernet Hubs or multi-port repeaters were used  to connect multiple computers or other network devices together. Hubs are now replaced by network switches due to various advancements and features.

Difference Between Hubs and Switches
HubsSwitches
FunctionConnects many network device together so that devices can exchange data. Do not provide any security featureSwitch is used to connect many devices together on a computer network. It offers VLAN and other security features
OSI Model LayerHub works on physical layer (layer-1) of OSI ModelSwitch works on Data-Link Layer (layer-2) of OSI Model. Layer 3 switches work on Network layer
Data Transmission UnitElectrical signal or bitsFrames for L2 Switch and Packets for L3 switch
Transmission TypeHubs always perform frame broadcastFirst broadcast; then unicast and multicast
PortsHubs have up to24 portsSwitch has generally more ports (upto 48 ports)
Address LearningA network hub cannot learn and store MAC addressesA network switch stores MAC addresses in a MAC address table
Transmission ModeHalf duplexFull duplex
Broadcast DomainHubs have one Broadcast Domain. All the connected devices remain in same broadcast domainSwitch by default has one broadcast domain but can create multiple broadcast domains with VLANs
CollisionsCollisions are common in networksNo collisions occur in a full-duplex switch environment
Loop AvoidanceNo means of loop avoidanceSpanning Tree Protocol is used to avoid switching loops
Difference between Bridges and Switches
BridgeSwitch
A device used to connect two separate Ethernet networks into one extended Ethernet. Bridge has usually 2 ports to connect two segmentsSwitch is a multi-port bridge. It can have up to 48 ports and each port works as bridge port
Bridge uses software to create and manage filter tablesSwitches use Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) to build and maintain filter table
A bridge can support only one spanning tree instanceSwitch supports multiple spanning tree instances at the same time

How Layer 2 Switching Works

Layer 2 switching uses the Media Access Control (MAC) address from the host’s network interface cards to decide where to forward frames. Layer 2 switching is hardware-based, which means switches use application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to build and maintain MAC address tables or CAM tables.

Functions of Switch at Layer 2

The switch performs three distinct functions at layer 2 which are:

  1. MAC Address Learning
  2. Forwarding/filtering Decision
  3. Loop Avoidance

Let’s discuss about these functions of switch in detail.

  1. MAC Address Learning: When a switch is switched on, it does not know the address of any host connected to network. When a device transmits for the first time, the switch stores the source MAC address and the interface ID from which the frame is received into a table which is known as MAC address table, CAM table or Filter table. Since the switch do not have information about any other host on network, it will broadcast the frame to all ports except that of source port. When the destination hosts reply to the broadcasted frame, switch will store store its MAC address by looking into frame and interface ID the host is connected to. The process is repeated until switch learn MAC address of all the connected hosts.
  2. Forwarding/filtering Decision: When a frame is received on any interface, the switch will look into the destination address and compare to its MAC address table. If the destination address is found in table, switch will not broadcast the frame but it will unicast the frame to interface corresponding to destination MAC address. But if the address is not found in filter table, the switch will flood the frame to find out destination. This is called filtering since the switch is filtering unnecessary traffic on network. The switch makes the forward or filter decision on the basis of MAC address table.
  3. Loop Avoidance: In production networks, the switches are interconnected to each other using multiple or redundant links. Redundancy is good for the times when one of the link fails, the redundant link can keep the network working. But this redundancy can also cause a big problem which is known as switching loop or broadcast storm.

Understanding Switching Loop or Broadcast Storm

Consider the following network diagram to better understand how switching loop works

 

Spanning TreeWhen PC1 try to connect to Server for the first time, Switch1 will receive the frame at interface Fa0/3 and since the Server is connected to Switch4, it is obvious that it will not find Server’s MAC address in its filter table. Switch1 will then flood the frame out of every port except Fa0/3. Now, both Switch2 and Switch3 will receive the copy of same frame. Switch2 and Switch3 will also flood the frame out every port (except source port). With this broadcast (flood), Switch1 can receive the frame back either via Switch2 — Switch3 — Switch1 or via Switch3 — Switch2 — Switch1. The Switch1 received its original frame back, So it will use the same method to flood it again in the search of Server. In this way the frame will keep circulating in network and copies of frame will keep  increasing with each loop. As an end result, the whole network bandwidth will be eaten by this unnecessary broadcast storm, resulting in complete network breakdown or unexpected result like super slow network performance.

Spanning Tree Protocol was designed to avoid layer 2 switching loop and broadcast storms. Spanning Tree Protocol is discussed in next section.

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